VOL. 13, NO. 2; March


Corpus-based investigation of the distribution patterns of English and Chinese pronouns

 Liang Ch’ang, Chan Hung


 In this study, we adopt a corpus-based approach to the analysis of the distributional patterns of major types of pronouns across different genres in two comparable balanced corpora in English and Chinese.
Utilizing results from state-of-the-art grammatical parsers, we find considerable variation in the distribution of pronouns in different genres. While English tends to employ consistently more pronouns in every genre than Chinese, the distributional patterns of pronouns in the two languages across the genres are highly patterned and significantly correlated with one another, suggesting that pronouns can play similar functional roles in varying contextual situations in the two languages. Of the subtypes of pronouns in the two languages, five are found to be directly comparable. Personal pronouns are found to have the most similar (correlated) genre distribution in the two languages, while demonstrative pronouns share the least similarity. The distributional patterns for each pronoun type are investigated and their underlying functional and cultural implications discussed. Our study suggests that the identification of these classes of pronouns can in large part be automated with the help of state-of-theart part-of-speech taggers and dependency parsers. The results of this study can inform future research and application involving pronouns, with implications ranging from cross-linguistic studies of grammatical features to second language acquisition.
Keywords: Pronouns, Cross-linguistic contrastive study, Corpus Linguistics

Difference between Taiwan Min-nan Dialect and Fujian Min-nan Dialect: Borrowed Words from Taiwan Min-nan Dialect

Demi Ryan


Southern Min dialect (also called Min-nan or Hokkien) in Taiwan is usually called ‘Taiwanese.’ Though there are many other dialects in Taiwan, such as Hakka, Mandarin, aboriginal languages, people speak Min-nan are the majority in Taiwan society. It becomes naturally to call Southern Min dialect as Taiwanese. Taiwanese Min-nan dialect though came from Mainland China; however, Min-nan dialect in Taiwan is a little different from Min-nan dialect in Fujian, China. Some words which are commonly used in Taiwanese Min-nan dialect do not see in Min-nan dialect in Fujian. In this paper the writer, choose some Taiwanese Min-nan words which are actually from Japanese as materials to discuss the difference between Taiwanese Min-nan dialect and Min-nan in Fujian.

Keywords: Taiwanese Min-nan, Fujian Min-nan, borrowed words.

Developing Anxiety in Vocabulary Learning on the Listening Scale

Demet Russom


This article reports on the development and validation of a measurement survey tool, the Anxiety in Vocabulary Learning through Listening Scale (AVLLS). The AVLLS is intended to help identify and evaluate foreign language learners’ anxiety in vocabulary learning through listening problems while they are listening to oral texts. Factor analysis was performed with a primary sample (N = 468), resulting in a 20-item survey instrument. The reliability and factorial validity of the instrument are presented along with a statistically significant correlation between students’ responses to the items on the instrument and the foreign language learners’ listening. Further uses for the instrument are discussed in relation to the AVLLS’s potentials in verifying the effectiveness of pedagogies designed to develop foreign language learner’s anxiety in vocabulary learning through listening.

Keyword: anxiety, vocabulary learning, listening

Optimized Circularly Polarized Bandwidth for Microstrip Antenna

Shashikant Bansal


In very high frequency performances such as spacecraft, satellite & missile applications where the size, weight, cost, performance, ease of installation & aerodynamic profile are constraints microstrip antennas (MA) are used to meet these requirements. In spite of limitations such as small bandwidth, low gain and low power handling capability, microstrip antenna offers good performance over other type of antennas due to their advantages. Therefore nowadays they have been used in various applications. One of the most interesting applications is their use for transmitting & receiving systems required for circular polarization. Increasing demands for circularly polarized microstrip antenna (CPMA) for communication systems has directed researchers to improve the performance of circularly polarized microstrip antenna. Specifically CP microstrip antenna is used in satellite links, missiles etc. The manuscript discusses the technique which perturbates a pair of orthogonal slits along the sides of the patch. This technique results into the optimized parameters for MA which is dimensions for MA, impedance as well as circularly polarized bandwidth. It is easy to fabricate. Therefore MA had been designed at 2.4GHz with pair of orthogonal slits along the sides of patch antenna. It is simulated using electromagnetic simulation software IE3D. While simulating for patches of various dimensions, it had been observed that for a particular patch & slit dimension there is only one feed location at which maximum impedance bandwidth can be obtained. It is also observed that for fixed patch dimensions by varying the slit length CPBW can be improved. In this manner the optimized patch had been fabricated and tested. The simulated and experimental results show good agreement.

Keywords: Microstrip antenna, CPBW, Beam width, Gain, IE3D.

Looking through the Lenses of Educational Management Information Systems (EMIS)

Simon Fletcher & Jonathan Kafui Aheto


The study examined the user awareness and use of Educational Management Information Systems (EMIS) by educational stakeholders, e.g. educators, parents, guardians, students, educational NGOs and consultants and the public in the Greater Accra Region in Ghana. The descriptive research design was used for the study. Purposive sampling technique was employed in selecting the sample for the study. The coverage area for the study was the Greater Accra Regional Education Office, two other municipal and one metropolitan Education Office. The study sample size was 48 which included the Regional/ Metropolitan/ Municipal Directors of Education with their four Frontline Assistant Directors. Others that were included in the sample were EMIS Co-ordinators, EMIS officers, Circuit supervisors, Heads of Primary, Junior and Senior High Schools and Teachers. The instrument used for data collection was self-prepared. In all, there were three research questions which were all captured by the instrument for data collection. The study revealed that: EMIS offices are present in the Regional and District Education Offices included in the sample in the Greater Accra Region; there is user awareness among educational stakeholders identified in the study, the core objectives of EMIS are being met; Ministry of Education sees the Annual School Census as the most important source of information regarding the situation of every school. It was further found that EMIS has no dedicated website. Also, EMIS users are usually those who are aware of its existence, hence awareness of EMIS informs its utilisation. Parents are rare users of EMIS. The study recommended that EMIS should have a dedicated and reliable website where users, patrons, researchers and stakeholders could rely on for educational information.

Keywords: awareness, EMIS, lens and utilisation.

Impact of Information Technology on Nigeria Banking Industry: a case Study of Skye Bank

Ibikunle Oluwafemi


As Information Technology is vital in banking today, it becomes imperative for banks to realize its impact on operational performance in order to justify capital investments. The objective of this work is to examine how the adoption of Information Technology affects the operations of commercial banks in terms of effectiveness, efficiency, competitiveness, customer base and globalization of the bank. The research methodology involved reviewing the existing network design of the investigating bank and comparing it with the proposed network design solution. The design and simulation results of work revealed that Information Technology led to increase customer satisfaction, improved operational efficiency, reduced transaction time, better competitive edge, reduced the running cost and ushered in swift response in service delivery.

Keywords: VLAN, VPN, Tunnel, WAN, LAN