Effects of Developed Electronic Instructional Medium on Students’ Achievement in Biology

Nsofor Caroline Chinna & Momoh Gabriel Dada


The study investigated the effects of developed electronic instructional medium (video DVD instructional package) on students’ achievement in Biology. It was guided by two research questions and two hypotheses, using a quasi-experimental, pretest-postest control group design. The sample comprised of 180 senior secondary, year two students from six schools located in the three education zones of Niger State. The subjects were divided into an experimental group (electronic medium instruction) and a control group (traditional lecture instruction). Structured Biology Achievement Test (SBAT) with internal consistency reliability co-efficient of 0.83 was used to measure the student’s achievement before and after the treatment. The data obtained from the study were analyzed using Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA). Results from Means, Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) and Scheffe test indicated that the achievement of students in biology greatly improved with the use of electronic instructional medium. Students’ gender had no significant effect on their achievement in biology when electronic medium was used. These results have implications for innovative use of instructional media and creating sound strategies for disseminating science in the classroom.

Keywords: effects, electronic instructional medium, students’ achievement, biology, Niger State

Comparing Student Engagement in Online and Face-to-Face Instruction in Health and Physical Education Teacher Preparation

Frank Butts, Brent Heidorn & Brian Mosier1


The purpose of this study was to see if there was a significant difference in engagement among undergraduate health and physical education majors when comparing online instruction to traditional lecture format. Method: Participants in this study were 22 undergraduate health and physical education majors enrolled in the summer semester, in a three-hour class. Two sections of the course were offered to the students. One section was delivered online and the other was delivered by traditional lecture in a face-to-face setting. The course curriculum and assignments were identical for the online and face-to-face courses. Analysis: Thirty-four Likert-scaled questions were used to determine student perception of engagement in the course. Difference in responses of the two study groups were examined using the Mann-Whitney Test (p = .05). Results: The results of this study showed no significant difference in 33 of the 34 variables used to measure engagement. Conclusions: It seems clear from this study that students in undergraduate physical education teacher preparation courses can be engaged in course content, whether that content is offered completely online, or in a traditionally-based face-to-face format.

Keywords: engagement, undergraduate, physical

 An Examination of Connections in Mathematical Processes in Students’ Problem Solving: Connections between Representing and Justifying

Despina A. Stylianou


Representation and justification are two central “mathematical practices”. In the past, each has been examined to gain insights in the functions that they have in students’ mathematical problem solving. Here, we examine the ways that representation and justification interact and influence the development of one another. We focus on the problem solving activity of 12-14 year-old students. Overall, this work highlights that the two practices are tightly connected. Students’ representations impact the way they form generalizations and subsequently justify their work. The work also provides insights in the development of representation and justification within the problem solving process. This work also provides insights where students’ representational practices may hinder the development of advanced justifications, and provides directions for pedagogy and further research.

Keywords: representation, mathematical processes,justification

Practical Teaching & Learning Model: A Modern Dimension 

Ahmad Ali Almteri and Sara Moh’D Mousa ISSA


Purpose: The purpose of this research is to evaluate and investigate the most suitable model required for teaching business Management curriculum. The paper will report a new dimension of Business Management Teaching. For this purpose, a Practical teaching & Learning Model has been prepared and will be discussed through qualitative research approach. The research proposed a model for Practical Teaching named PTLM (Practical Teaching & Learning Model). The model explains the ways for Business Management Faculty & Students in order to learn more during studies. Research Design: The study reports on a practical qualitative case study limited to business management domain. The choice of this approach was convenient & suitable. Practical implications: The practical implication of this study is to identify the parameters of Business Management Teaching mentioned in the proposed model named PTML. The paper is academic based on practical case study approach and will benefit students, teachers, researchers and corporate trainers from business management fields.

Keywords: business management teaching, business management students, practical & learning applications

The concept of justice in the social contract

Nisreen Yousef Abu Al-Ghanam


This study aims to focus on social contract according to the philosophy of John Rawls, that is specialized in the field of justice, aiming to solve many problems that the society face in our era. This study discusses the concept of the social contract, which has undergone several changes in contemporary political way of thinking, with pioneers such as John Rawls. Hence, the social contract and the concept of authority must be based on justice and take its legitimacy from the rules, principles and ethical standards agreed upon by the society. So the authority or even the contract has no longer a single form, as rapid progress has led to the emergence of new forms for both, However, the social contract theory keeps tell now its shining intellectual and considered a platform for philosophers, politicians, economists and sociologists to quote from it all the changes they seek for the new societies in the form of a (new social contract) between the government and people. In this study the following questions are answered: to what extent can the theory of John Rawls be guided to the essence of the issue in the liberal idea? Second: To what extent does the theory of John Rawls been applied to different types of laws and regulations? Third, what is the opportunity to make John Rawls theory the basis for a legal study related to the achievement of justice and the rejection of utilitarianism?

Key words: the theory of John Rawls, modern theories, justice, social contracts.

Write to Read in Two Different Practices: Literacy versus Technology in Focus

Ulla Damber


Literacy acquisition by using computers and computer tablets is rapidly gaining ground in Swedish classrooms. This article explores the hypothesis that computer-writing vitalizes the learning of literacy, in comparison with approaches using books and pencils. The results of two separate studies in two different settings where prewriting and writing were used to enhance literacy development will be described and discussed. The results of a recent study of classrooms where computers were used will be compared with an older study where students used pencils and paper for writing. The results indicated that the nature of the literacy practice was strongly linked to the teacher’s conceptions of literacy and learning. The teachers’ choices of computers or pencils as tools for writing do, however, not seem to influence the processes of writing in the classrooms. How writing was enacted in the classrooms and the potential to further development of the literacy practices, were linked to teacher knowledge and the teacher’s conception of literacy.

Keywords: literacy learning, computer tablets, write to read, prewriting, playwriting, teacher knowledge, elementary school

Emotional Problems and Teaching Strategies Relationship among Undergraduate Students, Case study: The University of Jordan

Fatima Eid Zaid AL- Adwan & Asmaa Abdulhussain Mohammad


This study aims to ascertain the relationship between the teaching strategies applied with average and superior students, and it sheds light on the emotional problems which students could be exposed to as a result of teaching strategies. The sample of this study includes (60) superior students and (120) average students from undergraduate degree. The researcher developed two tools: the first of which to measure the teaching strategies, and the second is to measure the emotional problems. The data was statistically treated by the following means: The Pearson Correlation Coefficient, “T” test, and the analytical contrast of the triple impact. The results of the study show that superior students are more exposed to emotional problems than average students during the teaching process. Moreover, the results of the study illustrate that the “presentation way” was most often used while teaching. It was found that there was no relationship between teaching strategies and the emotional problems which students might be exposed to in the first academic year. The results of this study shed light on existing differences (which are statistically significant) in the nature of emotional problems upon the students. This is as per scholastic variable, level, major, and gender; and especially in first level year students, scientific majors, and female students. The researcher recommends that more studies should be conducted in the future that focus on the main teaching strategies which are acceding to the students’ cognitive abilities and needs. Another would include making a specialized training program to reduce the emotional problems that students might be exposed to during university teaching process. To add to that, it is important to construct a study in the future which aims to take into consideration the emotional problems that students might be exposed to during the university teaching process.

Keywords: Emotional problems, teaching strategies, university teachers

An Auto Defense Approach to Enhance the Web Application Availability

Esra Alzaghoul, Faten Hammad, Fawaz A. Alzaghoul  and Moh’D Habib Samkari


The auto-defense software feature aims to fast recover the application and keep it available and running 24/7 as optimal as possible. Auto-defense is suitable to be applied to web applications for fast recovery during any unexpected change that may happen.  The concept of software systems and web auto-defense is widely used in many software such as Windows operating system which has restoration and recovery tools. This research proposes an auto-defense approach that monitor, diagnose, check, protect and recover web applications automatically and immediately with unnoticeable recovery time. To test the practical applicability of the proposed approach, an application has been developed to demonstrate the approach and apply it for real-time web applications. The results of the experiments were performed on different scenarios and demonstrated the ability of the proposed approach to recover web applications and increase its availability.

 Keywords: Auto Defense Approach,Web Applications, Cloud Applications, Auto-Backup, and Website Availability

The reality of the training courses provided by the Ministry of Education in Mafraq governorate in raising the professional and cognitive competence of educational counselors during service from their point of view

Fatima Al-Odwan and Haseeb Ali Al-Harahsheh


The study aimed to measure the reality of the training courses provided by the Ministry of Education in Mafraq governorate in raising the professional and cognitive competence of the educational counselors during the service from their point of view. The sample of the study consisted of (100) mentors and mentors working in schools in Mafraq governorate, where (100) questionnaire was distributed to them in their places of residence in the schools affiliated to Mafraq Governorate. Respondents answered a questionnaire about the reality of the training courses offered to the mentors after verifying their psychometric characteristics. Statistical analysis revealed that the level of the training courses held by the Ministry of Education in raising the professional and cognitive skills of the counselors in Jordan from the point of view of the guides themselves is average from the point of view of the sample members. The statistical analysis revealed that there were statistically significant differences between the averages of the counselors’ Their in-service training is due to the gender variable for females; the female arithmetic average is higher than that of males, and there are no statistically significant differences between the average of the counselors’ estimates of their degree of in-service training due to the variable of academic qualification, There were statistically significant differences between the average of the estimates of the counselors to the extent of their benefit from their in-service training due to the variable years of experience. It was found that the differences in favor of the experience period (10 years and more). The study also included several recommendations.

Keywords: training courses, educational guides, professional and cognitive competence.

The Role of Middle School Teachers in Enhancing Social Responsibility Among Students in The State of Kuwait

Abdelsalam Alawamrah and Husain Saad Mohammed Alsanea


This study aims to to identify the role of middle school teachers in enhancing social responsibility among students in the State of Kuwait. The study community consists of all managers (male and female) in the intermediate stage of the Farwaniya educational district for the academic year (2019-2020), and their number is (217) managers. The questionnaire was used as a study tool as well as the developmental survey methodology. However, the paragraphs of the questionnaire consisted from (39) paragraphs in the field of reality and difficulties, whereas their validity and reliability has been confirmed. Further, it was distributed to the study sample that consisting of (184) managers in all educational areas in Kuwait. In addition, the results shows that the role of middle school teachers in Enhancing social responsibility among students in the State of Kuwait is moderate, and it indicated that there are statistically significant differences in the role of middle school teachers in Enhancing social responsibility among students in the State of Kuwait due to gender and in favor of females, and the existence of related differences. Statistical significance depending on the variable of experience and in favor of less than 5 years, and according to the results of the study, many recommendations were made.

Keywords: Middle School Teachers, Social Responsibility.

The role of physical education teachers in instilling educational values among middle school students in the State of Kuwait

Abdelsalam Alawamrah and Naser Bader Rjaan Alrashidi


This study aims to reveal the role of physical education teachers in inculcating educational values among middle school students in the State of Kuwait, and to achieve the objectives of the study, the researcher used the descriptive approach, a questionnaire has been distributed to collect information on the domains of educational values. However, the study sample consisted of 158 middle school managers and directors The results of the study: The reality of the process of inculcating educational values by physical education teachers among middle school students in the State of Kuwait from the point of view of school principals was of a moderate degree, as well as the study revealed the existence of statistically significant differences according to the gender variable, while there are no differences according to For academic qualification and years of experience.

Keywords: physical education teachers – school administrators – educational values.

Improving E-portals and Its security  

Osama M RababahMuhammad Mabdeh, Dana A Al Qudah, Hussam Fakhouri 



Recently, fraud over the Internet creates one of the main problems for the widespread use of e-portals. Therefore, many studies try to provide usably and secure methods to authenticate users.  In e-portal security, authentication and authorization are two mechanisms for determining who can access the information resources over a network. This paper proposed three methods of user authentication management for three different kinds of environments to enhance security in e-portals.

 Keywords: Biometrics, Two-Factor authentication, Multi-Factor authentication, Dual-Factor authentication, Security, Usability.

Abstraction Philosophy and Semantics in Islamic Art

Mazen Hamdi Asfour, Jehad Alameri and Haifa’A Bani Ismail


Islamic art, since its inception and having completely abandoned the traditional vacuum  drawing and painting style as an artistic expression of the visible abstraction of its apparent physical dress, has taken a means of revealing the interior of that art and its spiritual, intellectual and social messages, This art has been able to create pure and abstract visual vocabulary capable of expressing its speech and message related to its spiritual aesthetic needs and social concerns as a meditative art combining sacred and mundane. This study aims to monitor and analyze examples of these solutions and visual vocabulary employed by the Muslim artist to express those spiritual, intellectual and aesthetic goals mentioned above, thus forming a philosophy of abstraction of his own stemming from his faith and his deep free understanding of religion.

In the long run, these visual elements that will be derived from this study can be used to help researchers seeking to establish a future Islamic visual art education project, which the education curricula in the Arab and Islamic world need in a necessary and urgent way.

Keywords: Islamic Art, Abstraction, Geometric Synthesis, Shape Semantics.

The degree of availability and impacts on students’ acquisition of Islamic educational ideas in the Islamic Education Lecture Buch for the 10th grades

Amani Odeh Matar  and Nasser Ahmad Al-Khawaldeh


This study aimed to know the degree of availability of the principles of knowledge economy in the Islamic education book for the tenth grade and its impact on students’ acquisition of Islamic education concepts. Latin schools, and also by content analysis of the Islamic education book for the tenth grade, and the descriptive survey method and the quasi-experimental method were used. %), and the electronic field occupied the first place, and with regard to the effect of the acquisition of Islamic concepts by tenth grade students, the study showed that there were statistically significant differences (a=0.05%) due to the effect of students’ acquisition of Islamic education concepts, where the value of “t” was (3.994). , in favor of the experimental group.

Keywords: principles of knowledge economy, Islamic education book, tenth grade students, Islamic concepts.