Vol. 11, No. 3; MAY 2020
Table of Content


Comprehensive Overview of the Current Methods Used in Contraception and its Related Studies

Harrison Lucas


A contraindication is included in a medical treatment, it is a prescription that should be avoided for example by performing a different medical procedure or administering one or more medications or medicines or if combined with another medications, which increases the risk of deteriorating the patient’s own symptoms or conditions of death. It is also part of the drug prospectus which contains the therapeutic indications. Indication is the opposite of the contraindication. An absolute contraindication is a condition in which the use of a joint treatment is categorically prohibited. This paper discusses the current methods used in contraception and its Related Studies.

The Role of Intermediate Stage Teachers in Developing Higher Thinking Skills Among Talent Classes Students in Denmark

Jake Cole , Noah Baxter


The present study aimed at identifying the role of middle school teachers in developing higher-order thinking skills among students of talent classes in Denmark. The study included (84) teachers involved in teaching classes for gifted middle school students, including 46 teachers and 38 teachers.  A  special  questionnaire for middle school teachers to know their role in the development of higher thinking skills among students of talent classes in Denmark, and used the descriptive method in answering questions, and the results indicated that the field of school management came first in the highest arithmetic average  The field of school activities came in the third place with a high rating, followed by the curriculum and teaching methods in the fourth place with a high grade, while the field of difficulties facing the teacher in developing higher-order thinking skills came in the second place.  The results of the study indicated that there are no statistically significant differences in knowing the role of middle school teachers in developing higher thinking skills among students of talent classes in Denmark due to the gender impact in all fields except school activities.  The results of the study indicated that there are no statistically significant differences in knowing the role of middle school teachers in developing higher thinking skills among students of talent classes in Denmark due to the effect of scientific qualification.  Fields.  The study recommended that the programs offered to gifted students should be reconsidered through the attention of the chapters on the latest developments in the international standards for gifted care in all fields.

Active participants in internet discussion groups: an exploratory analysis of focus group interviews and observations

Walter C. Cohen , Anna J. Prince


While online discussion groups have become powerful tools to enhance open democratic discussions, the literature shows that only a marginal percentage of individuals are active participants. The majority of users read the content but do not participate (lurkers). The aim of this research was to better understand the psychological and environmental factors impacting the online participation of active participants and lurkers. Method. Four focus groups were conducted in which participants were asked to describe their participation behavior in online public discussions. Analysis. The data were analysed using thematic analysis that facilitates identifying, analysing, and reporting patterns or themes within data. Results. Regarding psychological factors, findings show that active participants seemed to be more extroverted and open than lurkers, they felt they had better control over the online environment, a higher ability to influence, higher self-efficacy and a greater need for gratification. Regarding environmental factors, both active participants and lurkers reported they need a place to express themselves, need the content to be emotionally triggered and relevant, and need a familiar environment. Conclusions. Findings demonstrated that both personality and environmental factors play in the adoption of the role of lurker or active participant in online communities.

Passion trumps pay: the survey in Galleries, Libraries, Archives and museums in Australia of the future abilities of data experts

Mary Chuter, Zane Grainger


This paper explores the current and future skills and knowledge requirements of contemporary information professionals in a converged gallery, library, archive and museum sector (also referred to as the GLAM sector) in Australia. This research forms part of a larger study that investigated the education needs of information professionals who will work in a converged environment. Method. A relatively unknown method called the grounded Delphi method was used. Data was collected in rounds as for a Delphi study, with the data analysis incorporating elements of grounded theory. Analysis. Focus groups were audio recorded and recordings transcribed. Coding techniques were then applied allowing for similarities and differences in the data to be identified. Results. While common skills and knowledge across all four sectors were identified, including problem solving, critical thinking, critical analysis, written and oral communication, adaptability and leadership, the two most emphatically endorsed by all participants were a passion for and an understanding of the sector. Conclusions. This paper provides the first empirical evidence of skills and knowledge required of information professionals in galleries, libraries, archives and museums in Australia. This can be used to inform what these professionals should be learning in an information management education program.

The use of Internet sources in classroom tasks on contentious problems

Marvin T. Rodriquez , Brian J. Bender


Introduction. This study concerns students’ criteria in the evaluation of Internet sources for a school assignment requiring reflections on a controversial issue. The findings are elaborated by analysing students’ discursive accounts in justifying the use or non-use of sources. Method. The interview data was collected in a Finnish upper secondary school during classes on religion and ethics. Thirty-nine students were interviewed in one to three person groups after they had given the presentation in the classroom. Analysis. The interviews were analysed using the discourse analysis in social psychology approach. The analysis concerned how different accounts related to information evaluation are used to justify the truthfulness of knowledge. Results. The most used evaluation criteria were the authority and neutrality of information. Various types of evaluation criteria and arguments were used simultaneously. The arguments were, in part, comparable to evaluation criteria presented in previous research.Conclusion. The evaluation criteria are cultural objects that can be utilized in various ways within different discursive contexts. The criteria were used in students’ accounts alternately, not as mutually exclusive. Personal interests and high motivation with regard to the school assignment’s subject were essential for students to identify and use more reflective and diverse argumentation related to evaluation criteria.

Contextual factors and consequences for information literacy schooling in Laos

Deborah D. Claassen , Stanley P. Hadley


Introduction. Laos is used as a case study of how factors such as culture and indigenous knowledge must be considered to plan for information literacy education that is culturally and contextually appropriate. Method. Data were obtained from observations during visits to four Lao schools and from interviews with fourteen teachers at these schools. The schools visited were an urban primary school, an urban secondary school, an urban vocational school, and a rural secondary school. Analysis. Hofstede’s cultural dimensions are employed to understand local cultural norms in the context of the Lao education system, while indigenous knowledge and local conditions are examined to demonstrate how these factors affect information literacy education. Results. Contextual factors including local cultural norms, the lack of adequate resources, and large class sizes play an important role in how Lao teachers approach classroom teaching. Lao teachers draw upon their own indigenous knowledge to understand how the local context affects teaching and learning in their schools, and they use the indigenous knowledge held by elders, students’ parents, and others within their community as a means of overcoming resource deficiencies. Conclusions. These findings have implications for developing and promoting culturally and contextually appropriate information literacy programmes in developing countries such as Laos. Local and foreign advisors alike must be aware of local cultural norms, and should call upon the teachers’ knowledge of the local educational context and their own ways of incorporating indigenous knowledge from their community as a teaching resource for information literacy programmes.