Vol. 12, No. 2; MARCH 2021
Table of Content


The Art of Irtijal in Musiqa Al-Tarab: Theoretical Concepts and Emotional Connection in the Performance of Mawwal and Taqasim

Noor Ebbini1 & Tsonka Al Bakri †


This article explores the art of improvisation (irtijal) in the performance of musiqa al-tarab – a prominent genre of Arab music. The authors examine the theoretical concepts, generative mechanisms, and emotional and psychological connotations embedded in the performance of the two main styles of irtijal: The taqsim and mawwal. The study uncovers the true emotional essence of musiqa al-tarab and explores the role that improvisation plays in creating the ecstatic sensation that defines tarab. The research analyzes musiqa al-tarab from a socio-cultural lens by studying the different ways in which local traditions, customs, and religious beliefs influence the musical direction and reception of a performance. The authors investigate the factors that may affect an artist’s interpretation of different musical styles and delves into the technical and practical issues associated with the performance of irtijal. This study ponders pivotal concepts in the Arab musical culture, including the performer-audience dynamic and the maqam system, using the art of irtijal as the main reference. This research has identified performance strategies or guidelines that are widely spread amongst Arab musicians practicing the art of irtijal. These strategies are submersed with traditional, religious, socio-cultural, and spiritual values that are crucial to sustaining the Arab musical identity. 

Keywords:  irtijal, taqsim, mawwal, improvisation, maqam, tarab, sama’a.

The Body between Nature and Culture from a Feminist Perspective

 Hanaya Nahhas & Laila Alhees †



The body is known to be the dominator to all of the feminists’ movements in the world. The issue of the body (women embodiment in particular) have overshadowed the feminist thought the last three decades, further, the body has been considered the path through which all feminist liberation movements have passed through. Since the women freedom is connected to her body, clothes, look and appearance, reproductively and abuse and the violence that she faces all of this is due to that   she has a female body. However, from another point of view, the science-feminism relation has never been a convenient one; sciences, however, from the women point of view, usually advocate that it supports a certain ideology to legitimizing specific roles of men and women. The criticism of these sciences that is considered ideologies highlights the cultural importance of sciences, and how it influences the social relations and it vision that the scientist offers. Hence, scientific theories have precautions and implications that is need to be known and understood [1]. In addition, new materialistic view has an important project that puts it in direct conflict with the said replies to the feminists’ critics, through making “the material (the material human body) and the natural world at the upfront of feminists’ practices and theories.” We are tackling these discussions in the context of the most general question about “what does it means to understand humans as part of nature and how would we be able to think of nature stemming from being part of it?” connecting such feminists’ discussions with Merleau – Ponty’s philosophy. We suggest that Merleau – Ponty’s prospective of our bodies as representative of the world, would shack the nature/culture dualism and unite the body with the world. The thinking-body theory would not be able to eliminate the nature/culture debate; nonetheless, it would pave the way to think deeply into the trilogy of nature/culture/body as part of one structural knowledge.

Keywords:  Feminist Perspective, culture, knowledge, woman

Factors that Affect the Achievement of Mathematics for Students in Better Education

Sidney Welch†


The quality of teaching and learning mathematics has been one of the major challenges and concerns of educators. Instructional design is an effective way to alleviate problems related to the quality of teaching and learning mathematics. Knowing the factors affecting math achievement is particularly important for making the best design decisions. This study was conducted to identify the factors affecting the math achievement of students through collecting the opinions of math department students. Results revealed that instructional strategies and methods, teacher competency in math education, and motivation or concentration were the three most influential factors that should be considered in the design decisions.


Use of technology and insight into the instructional impact of Technical University faculties

Madeleine Dawson


Digital instructional technology has made a strong impact on how students learn and how instructors teach at colleges and universities. This study had three primary purposes. The first purpose was to investigate Taiwanese technical university faculty members’ use of technology tools in the classroom and in lesson preparation. The second was to examine the factors that promote or inhibit the use of technology tools. The third was to explore the perceived instructional impact resulting from faculty members’ use of technology. The population of the research was comprised of 354 faculty members from a selected technical university in Taiwan. A total of 197 surveys were returned for an overall response rate of 53.9%. A 50-item survey was developed and used for data collection. Descriptive analyses and inferential analyses including ttest and one-way ANOVAs were performed to answer the research questions. Results showed that workload, educational resources, and administration inhibit the use of technology. It was indicated that enhancing student learning was the reason that faculty used technology in the teaching process. It is concluded that classes that applied technologies were more effective than traditional lectures from the perspectives of the faculty. A more digitalized learning environment can be considered advantageous for technical universities.

Keywords: Instructional technology; Educational technology; Instructional design; Information technology; Impact of technology; Technology education; Computer technology; Technological literacy; Faculty development; Higher education