Vol. 12, No. 1; JANUARY 2021
Table of Content

Articles

Microgrids-As-A-Service for Rural Electrification in Sub-Saharan Africa

Xia Liu and Michael Romoko


Abstract:

The majority of the population on the African continent is unable to access basic electricity services, this despite the abundance of renewable energy sources (RESs). The inability to adequately tap into these RESs has led to the continued dependence on non-renewable energy sources such as coal for electricity generation, and kerosene for cooking and lighting, the resulting use of which is poor health conditions. The use of Microgrids (MGs) is being extensively researched as a feasible means of tackling the challenge of electrification, especially in rural and remote areas. Recent times have seen an increasing number of research works focusing on Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), which is one of the regions with the lowest electrification rates in the world. MGs provide the most suitable means to integrate RESs into the electricity generation process, paving the way towards clean energy for the African continent. This paper presents a review of recent literature on the usage of MG for rural electrification, with a specific focus on the applicability of MG in the SSA context. The paper additionally presents the challenges and opportunities to date. Research findings indicate that SSA has already begun the transition towards clean energy via implementation of RES-based MGs. However, two resonating challenges in the literature are adequate support via policy, and proper planning of project implementation. These two major barriers are needed to be overcome in order to fully utilize MGs for rural electrification in SSA.

Keywords: Microgrid (MG), Rural Electrification, Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA).

A Smart Banking System Enabled by IoT: A Technological Revolution

Fabris Kolshinko


Abstract:

The major suggestion of the Smart Banking System based on IoT is to create a system that is simple to use and accessible. Certain Banking & Financial Services (BFS) organizations use IoT technology to better tracking and analysis of customer habits and requirements. In the age of linked “things,” banks are experimenting with better methods for interacting with clients to provide them advice, and may show money related offers through their cell phone when they walk past certain establishments. They may use a similar method to offer guidance on sending a message to “skip Starbucks” since the client overspent on sundries the current month’s savings. Banks will have a large amount of work to do in the future in terms of payment management and control. IoT.

The customer data available through the IoT will identify the financial needs of the client and its value chain that also helps banks provide the value added services and customized financial products to ensure Win-Win situation .This banking system enabled with IoT improves customer loyalty by playing as a powerful facilitator .It transforms the business in the future. Banks must convert IoT data into valuable information that helps in increases their market share and provides better solutions to their customers.

Keywords: Smart Banking System, Wearable, Payment system, CRM, Retail Banking

The Impact of a New Electronic Instructional Medium on Biology Student Achievement

Frona Marlee and Millie Brylee


Abstract:

The study looked into the impact of a produced electronic instructional medium (video DVD instructional package) on students’ Biology achievement. It used a quasi-experimental, pretest-posttest control group design and was led by two research questions and two hypotheses. The sample consisted of 180 senior secondary, year two students from six schools located in Niger State’s three education zones. The subjects were separated into two groups: experimental (electronic media teaching) and control (traditional lecture instruction). To assess the student’s achievement before and after treatment, the Structured Biology Achievement Test (SBAT) with an internal consistency reliability co-efficient of 0.83 was used. Data from the study were analyzed using Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA). Means, Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA), and Scheffe test results revealed that. These results have implications for innovative use of instructional media and creating sound strategies for disseminating science in the classroom.

Keywords: effects, electronic instructional medium, students’ achievement, biology, Niger State

Internet of Things Networks Using Mixed Integer Linear Programming Architecture

Linda Qalbeno and Emanoeel Ralf


Abstract:

In this manuscript, we introduce a Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) model to design an energy efficient cloud computing platform for Internet of Things (IoT) networks. In our model, the IoT arrangement comprised of four layers. The first (lowest) band consisted of IoT devices, e.g. sensors. The networking elements (relays, coordinators and gateways) are amid aural the high three layers, respectively. These networking elements accomplish the tasks of data aggregation and processing of the traffic produced by IoT devices. The processing of IoT cartage is handled by Virtual Machines (VMs) hosted by mini clouds and placed within the IoT networking elements. We optimized the amount of mini clouds, their area and the adjustment of VMs to abate the absolute ability burning induced by cartage accession and processing. Our outcomes showed that the optimal administration of mini clouds in the IoT arrangement could crop an absolute ability accumulation of as compared to processing IoT abstracts in an individual mini cloud located at the gateway layer.

Keywords: IoT, cloud computing, virtualization and energy efficiency.

Cyber security Ad-Hoc and wireless networks in Saudi educational institutions

Barah Mohammed Alanzi and  Tareq Yousef Bishtawi 


Abstract:

In our time, cyber security has become a necessary requirement and warned by organ-izations and companies all over the world. Moreover, the educational offer on this top-ic remains modest and universities are struggling to design courses capable of producing directly employable professionals. Cyber security is an important component of na-tional security and the preservation of assets and assets in the country. In Saudi Ara-bia, the point of interest in cyber security is particularly prominent due to the fact that Saudi Arabia has a high level of cyber-attacks across the Arab countries. This paper presents contemporary studies conducted in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia regarding the coverage of cybersecurity policy.

This can significantly contribute to the improvement, implementation and dissemi-nation of cybersecurity policy at the state level in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. [1]

The paper presents some of the ways to provide standard security services available in traditional networks in an ad-hoc wireless networking environment. The primary goal is to design a security system optimized to operate in ad-hoc wireless networks in Saudi educational institutions, providing the same security services – data integrity, data con-fidentiality, access control, authentication and non-repudiation – that are currently available in classic wired networks.

In ad-hoc networks, connected nodes do not necessarily depend on a static infra-structure, which poses new challenges to the necessary security architecture imple-mented by educational institutions. Since ad-hoc networks are often designed for spe-cific environments and may have to operate with full availability even in challenging environments, security solutions implemented in traditional networks may not be di-rectly suitable to protect them. [2]. This paper describes the basic problems of ad-hoc network in Saudi educational in-stitutions by giving its relevant background including concept, features, status and weaknesses of ad hoc wireless network. This paper provides an overview and study of routing protocols. It also includes many challenging issues, emerging applications, and future directions of ad hoc wireless networking.

Keywords: Cybersecurity, Ad-hoc Network Security, wireless networks, MANET, security aware-ness, sensors, CEM AC2000.

Residents’ Satisfaction with Planning and Neighborhood Facilities in Some Public Housing Estates in Benin

John Dimuna, Kingsley Markov


Abstract:

The objective of the study is to analytically assess the residents’ perception of planning of six housing estates and their satisfaction levels in Benin City, Edo state, Nigeria. The population of the study comprises all residents of the six housing estates in Benin City as at 2018 which is the study period. The data were collected from the six (6) estates covered by this study: Oluku Housing Estate, EDPA Housing Estates Ugbowo, Federal Housing Estate, Oregbeni, Federal Housing Estate on Ikpoba Hill, Iyekogba Housing Estate, Ebo Village, and Andrew Wilson Housing Estate, Evbuoriaria. A total of 1200 copies of questionnaires were administered across the six housing estates. However, the total response rate of 1000 was achieved as only these copies of questionnaires were retrieved in usable format. Descriptive statistical tools such as means, standard deviations, kruskal-willis test and categorical regression analysis were utilized for the data analysis. The result showed that the relative satisfaction index scores for the all the estates are on the fairly satisfied region (RSI: 2.1-3.0) and this implies that residents are fairly satisfied with the estate planning conditions. The Kruskal-willis test confirms the absence of any significant differences in RSI scores across the estates while the categorical regression analysis results shows that estate planning has a positive effect on residents satisfaction and this is significant at 5% (p=0.003) which implies improvement in estate planning results in higher satisfaction levels. The study recommends the need for Government policy to encourage a decent living environment in terms of planning of estates.

 Data security and Cryptography: Traditional and Modern Techniques

 Hussam N. Fakhouri


Abstract:

 As the web has integrated into every organization es and experienced explosive growth over the past decades, data security has become a major concern for everyone connected to the Internet. Data security guarantees that data is only available to the intended recipients and no unotharised access happen to it so that it is not manipulated or changed. To attain this degree of security, several strategies and approaches have been developed. Cryptography may be described as the techniques used to encrypt data using specified algorithms, rendering the data unintelligible to the human eye until decrypted using procedures set by the sender. The security of wired and remotely connected enterprises is a crucial issue. Data sharing require data security. Many novel techniques and security algorithms have been developed to achieve this purpose.The major consideration is how much security is provided for the data storage and transfer. Many techniques have been developed to ensure security, However, One such method ensures the safe transmission of information without affecting its classification is  Cryptography. In addition, Because of the open design and changeable location, as well as a lack of a foundation, remote enterprises are unprotected against a range of threats. Various types of assaults, including as cipher text assaults, brute force assaults, and known plaintext assaults, are possible on wired and remote organizations. In this paper, we survey different cryptographic and data security techniques including both traditional technique and also more recent proposals. such as RSA, ECC, Blowfish, AES, DES, and IDEA., We analyse the attributes of each technique, to list their advantages and disadvantages.
Keywords: Data Security, Cryptography, Security Encryption, Decryption

Adaptable shipping questions: South Pacific University case

Olivia Baxter†, Yasar Kaseeb Gaber


Abstract:

Learning is a life-long process through which one uses acquired experiences to deal with new situations, develop new relationships and solve new problems. Learning in school must not be seen as being enough for solving everyday problem, hence there is need to learn and develop new skills that are practicable and can make people become employable in labour market. The problem of unemployment is all over the world now, however, those who had acquired necessary skills would find themselves employable in any situation. This study examines the effective skills that would make graduates of universities either employable or be self reliant in their own businesses. The researcher employed a descriptive research design of the survey type. A sample of 100 respondents was used for the study while a self designed questionnaire tagged “Effective skills for Labour Market and Implication for community Development” was used to gather the needed data. The data collected were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. One research question and three hypotheses were generated for the study and the results show among others that there is a significant relationship between effective labour skills and employability and that employability is significantly related to improved living which is an index of community development. It is, therefore, recommended that for graduates to be gainfully employed in a bid to contribute to the development of their persons as well as their communities, they must be armed with effective skills which would lead to their productivity in the labour market. Thereby, improving their living standards as well as being able to make their impact felt in their communities.

Keywords: labour market, Skills, active labour market, career education, employability.

Evaluation of Predictive Factors in the Drop-Out Phenomenon: Interaction of Latent Personal Factors and Social-Environmental Context

Coby Adela and Richelle Titty


Abstract:

The objective of the study is to analytically assess the residents’ perception of planning of six housing estates and their satisfaction levels in Benin City, Edo state, Nigeria. The population of the study comprises all residents of the six housing estates in Benin City as at 2018 which is the study period. The data were collected from the six (6) estates covered by this study: Oluku Housing Estate, EDPA Housing Estates Ugbowo, Federal Housing Estate, Oregbeni, Federal Housing Estate on Ikpoba Hill, Iyekogba Housing Estate, Ebo Village, and Andrew Wilson Housing Estate, Evbuoriaria. A total of 1200 copies of questionnaires were administered across the six housing estates. However, the total response rate of 1000 was achieved as only these copies of questionnaires were retrieved in usable format. Descriptive statistical tools such as means, standard deviations, kruskal-willis test and categorical regression analysis were utilized for the data analysis. The result showed that the relative satisfaction index scores for the all the estates are on the fairly satisfied region (RSI: 2.1-3.0) and this implies that residents are fairly satisfied with the estate planning conditions. The Kruskal-willis test confirms the absence of any significant differences in RSI scores across the estates while the categorical regression analysis results shows that estate planning has a positive effect on residents satisfaction and this is significant at 5% (p=0.003) which implies improvement in estate planning results in higher satisfaction levels. The study recommends the need for Government policy to encourage a decent living environment in terms of planning of estates.

Keywords: housing, planning, public, neighbourhood, residents, satisfaction