Vol. 12, No. 6; November 2020
Table of Content


Adaptable shipping questions: South Pacific University case

Olivia Baxter†, Yasar Kaseeb Gaber


Flexible delivery has become an essential model for teaching and learning as its methods are closely aligned to the constructivist theories catering for diverse learners’ needs and lifestyles. In the South Pacific, where islands are geographical scattered over the vast areas of the world’s largest ocean, development, delivery, evaluation and communication of the flexibly delivered courses remain problematic. This paper focuses on the problems, challenges and barriers of offering flexibly delivered courses in the Pacific from the context of the University of the South Pacific, a leading premier regional university serving 12 island nations in the Pacific. It explores the following problematic issues, (a) inflexible curriculum, (b) access to support services, (c) level of infrastructure, and (d) ICT developments, and proposes possible solutions to these issues.

Keywords: Flexible delivery, flexible learning, flexibly delivered course, distance and flexible learning, distance and flexible learners, University of the South Pacific, ICT.

E-journals and academic communication: a reference and quotation study

Mahrus Abdul-Muqaddim Shadid


The newspaper is essential for formal communication with scholars. This research highlights the findings of an empirical study on scientific journals and the preliminary findings. The aim of the research is to assess the impact on academic communication of electronic journals through the measurement of the degree to which they are cited in print and electronic literature. The aim is to provide a quick picture of the impact e-journals had on scientific communication around the end of 1995. This study offers a measure of this impact, particularly on the formal communication process rather than on informal communication. The study also examines the forms of e-journals quoted by scholars, the accuracy of quotations from e-journals and the practical problems faced by researchers who wish to access e-journals in the networks.

Learning to work between IT infrastructures

Emily Winter


This study investigates the implications of the interplay of multiple information infrastructures to learning and conducting work and to its related information work practices, and how the materialities of work and its infrastructures play into their intermingling. Method. The present study is based on an ethnography of a week-long archaeological teaching excavation conducted by the author. The excavation took place on a stone-age site in a Nordic country Analysis. The analysis of the ethnographic data was based on constant comparative method and close reading. Results. Four major information infrastructures were identified in the empirical setting. They and their diverging materialities were intimately linked to how information work was conducted at the excavation. The presence of two infrastructures designed for the same purposes of documenting the site and excavation process caused problems with scheduling and managing the work, but did at the same time make their associated premises and infrastructural obligations visible for the participants of the excavation. The older of these two infrastructures played a potentially important role as an infrastructural stalwart, an infrastructure that stabilised another infrastructure. Conclusion. The presence of parallel, overlapping information infrastructures makes them visible and potentially less effective but also unveils their underpinnings for learning and insights in their role in information work.

Online Editor: perceived roles and duties of Wikipedia editors

Amber Collingridge de Tourcey , Audrey Ziesemer


We report on the experiences of a group of people as they become Wikipedia editors. We test Benkler’s theory that commons-based production processes accelerate the creation of capital, questioning what knowledge production processes do people engage in as they become editors? The analysis positions the development of editing expertise within broader social contexts to explore how the act of editing supports other types of commons-based production that foster and support and counteract issues of empowerment, equality and social justice. Method. Nine editathon participants were interviewed using a semi-structured interview transcript. Analysis. In a first round of analysis, data was coded into content areas. Then thematic coding examined: (1) the actions of participants as they became Wikipedia editors and the values and sentiments they ascribed to the role; (2) the emerging beliefs and emotions around becoming an editor and the agency and actions triggered by perceived responsibilities. Results. The study surfaced a range of emotions and beliefs editors developed as they took on editing responsibilities and ascribed different values to their new role. These distinct values and beliefs perceived led editors to engage in distinctive forms of action. Some participants developed a sense of empowerment to shape societal agendas, viewing editing as a form of continued activism. Conclusion. The findings pinpoint actions people engage in as they move into the editing role, highlighting the values they ascribe to editing. The study also surfaced the perceived responsibilities associated with editing as well as the emotions and beliefs associated with these obligations.

Extreme protection of long-term records — who cares? Swedish opinion on data on nuclear waste

Ramiro Bodrov , Nick Frolova


Knowledge on the proposed nuclear waste repository in Sweden must be protected for future generations in such a way that it is accessible and understandable until 100,000 years from now. This paper discusses existing plans for the protection of knowledge and perspectives on a range of stakeholders.  An review of literature outlines the key methods for protection of the knowledge in international research on nuclear waste. Documents were collected concerning the protection of knowledge plans of the industry. Responses were also obtained and reviewed to the consultation on applications submitted by universities , government departments and environmental bodies. Testing. The first paper analysis clarifies the requirements of the industry and aims to retain knowledge in the sense of current field research. In the second paper the views of the different participants in the consultation process are explained. Outcomes. The Swedish nuclear industry knows the knowledge protection techniques of researchers reasonably well. However, planning is limited to keeping decision-making informed. Some stakeholders have few exceptions and only make statements on technical issues. Findings. In general, the social interest in the issue of preserving long-term knowledge is low. One preliminary reason is that the intense time scale makes it hard to grasp the issue. The technical and geological challenges, similarly long-term, are easier to speak about as they are lacking awareness about human society’s future growth.

Temporal and Spatial Variation for Population Change in Aqaba City using Geographic Information Systems between 1994 and 2018

Rola Nayef Mohammed Al-Quraan and Shahed husni saqallah


The study dealt with the spatial and temporal change of the population in the city of Aqaba in terms of population size at the level of neighborhoods, population growth rates, change and distribution of the spatial structure of the population in the city, and factors of population growth from natural increase and migration, the study relied on official census data as well as estimates for 2018, Changes in population growth, distribution and composition, The study concluded that the city of Aqaba has witnessed rapid growth in its population over the past two decades. The population in the residential areas of Aqaba has gradually increased significantly, almost tripling between 1994 and 2018, the population growth of the population of the city of Aqaba in general during the study period was (4.62%) for the period (1994 – 2018).

Keywords: population growth, Aqaba, migration, population change, Lorenz curve.