VOL. 10, NO. 2; MARCH


Environmental insecurity, data literacy and scan: to a sophisticated environment

Rachel F. Lampkins &, Stephen A. Lloyd


Introduction. Environmental scanning is serving as an effective way for organizations to detect environmental signals and hence formulate adaptive strategies for survival and success. Prior studies have put much emphasis on the frequency of scanning, as it was found to be positively correlated with environmental uncertainty. However, the role of related information literacy skills for conducting scanning activities has not received equal attention. Whether more frequent scanning or better information literacy competencies would result in more effective environmental scanning remains unexplored. Method. This study investigates the relationship between perceived strategic uncertainty and environmental scanning activities of forty-two travel agents in Singapore through a pre-tested, questionnaire-based survey. Analysis. Descriptive analysis was conducted for each varible. Correlation analysis and ANOVA test were carried out to test the proposed hypotheses. Results. It was found that the frequency of collecting and organizing information is positively correlated with perceived strategic uncertainty, and the information literacy skills for conducting all steps of environmental scanning are more important, in terms of the overall quality of the end product. Moreover, it is worth noting that the frequency of collecting information, which is emphasized by previous studies, does not have significant correlation with the information quality. Conclusions. More frequent information collection may not necessarily lead to better quality of information. The collected information should be properly processed, organized, disseminated and evaluated to realize its value.

Effects of respondent’s relational features on perceived credibility of information posts on social networking sites: Facebook

Marjorie M. Jones & Carlos L. Buxton


Introduction. The relational characteristics of an answerer on a social networking site can be used as cues to assess the credibility of an answer. This study examined the effects of different numbers of followers and friends of an answerer on readers’ perceived credibility of an answer posted by the answerer in the context of Facebook. Method. We conducted two experiments to examine the effects of different numbers of followers and friends on the credibility perceptions of an answer on Facebook, respectively. Their influences on three dimensions of credibility were examined, namely: believability, trustworthiness, and accuracy. Analysis. The data were analysed using t-tests and two-way ANOVAs (analysis of variance). Results. We found that participants perceived an answer posted by an answerer with more followers or friends as more believable and trustworthy, but not necessarily more accurate. Conclusion. Despite the popularity of social networking sites as a place for information seeking, the effects of relational characteristics of an information provider have been little examined. Results of this study show that system-generated relational cues (i.e., number of friends and followers) likely exert a larger influence on certain dimensions of perceived credibility of an answer (i.e., believability and trustworthiness).

Mismanagement of personal data and stakeholder reactions to privacy protection in South Korea

Dong Hyun Song & Chang Yong Son


Introduction. This article examines data management practices in the private sector, identifying failures in the management of personally identifiable information. While analysing the changing big data policies in Korea, the work will also critically scrutinise customer data management practices. Method The policy surrounding privacy was examined. Five incidents relating to the management of personally identifiable information were selected for the analysis. Interviews with policymakers, corporate members and civil rights activists were also conducted. Analysis. Government policies on customer data and privacy management are being loosened to boost big data uses in society. However, some ways of dealing with issues in the management of personally identifiable information, which have been noted in the commercial sectors, have raised serious concerns. These are categorised as three main issues: (1) illegal trade in customer data; (2) employee supervision failure; and (3) data management failure. Results. The moral hazard is prevalent in the corporate sector regarding personally identifiable information management and trade. The current policy on personal information protection is effectively regulating personal information, but personally identifiable information management practice is poor and corporations are not following the data protection protocols. Conclusion. The Korean government has relaxed laws on the use of such information and allowed the expansion of big data services. This paper shows that those involved believe that customer data management is inadequate and, therefore, new measures to safeguard their use of personally identifiable information are needed.

Risk management and disaster recovery in public libraries in South Australia

Kayla L. Medina & Gladys J. Green


Introduction. This paper reports the findings of a study of risk management in public libraries. The focus of the research was to determine whether the libraries had a risk management and disaster plan for major disasters. Method. A qualitative study was done to investigate risk management and disaster recovery in public libraries in South Australia. Seven personal interviews were conducted with library managers and librarians at four public libraries. Analysis. The qualitative results emerging from the interviews were analysed through hand coding using grounded theory. Results. Participants confused risk management and disaster recovery with the practice of work (occupational) health and safety. None of the participating libraries have a risk management or disaster plan. Conclusions. The library managers do not rate the risk of disaster as high, believing that their library is located in a low-risk disaster area. They also do not regard any part of their collections to be of great value. Loss of a collection is perceived as an opportunity to refresh that collection. The participants do not consider risk management and disaster recovery as an important part of their business.

Information literacy and the severe player: changes in the experience of learning with data

Cody Grills & Toby Crooke


Introduction. This study reports an investigation into the ways in which people engaged in a serious leisure activity can experience using information to learn (also known as information literacy). Method. Data were collected through twenty-two semi-structured, one-on-one, phenomenographic interviews conducted with identified serious leisure participants operating within the area of heritage (as defined by the study). Analysis. Empirical material was gathered through audio recordings and transcripts of the collated interviews. Data were analysed using structural and focused coding methods. Results. The study revealed that serious leisure participants experience using information to learn in four ways: acquiring new information, helping the learning community, self-awareness and entertainment. Conclusions. This study contributes to our understanding of information literacy as it applies to a person’s everyday-life leisure world.

Conceptualization of ISI outcome and impact measures

Mason Ford & Mason Ford


 Introduction. The purpose of this qualitative, exploratory study is to clarify ambiguous concepts in intelligence services literature specifically related to measurement of intelligence outcomes and impact. Method. Face to face interviews were held with five subject experts from various intelligence fields and countries regarding their conceptualizations of intelligence measurement. Participants were given the opportunity post-interview to review and edit responses, to ensure accuracy. Analysis. Participant responses were compared and contrasted in defining key terms, descriptions of current practice in outcome measurement, and requirements for future best practice. Results. Participants’ definitions of terms and conceptual lenses varied. Participants’ descriptions of their own practices in, and reactions to, measuring outcomes and impacts were unique to the participant and paralleled discussions in the literature. Suggestions for best practice were made. Participants agreed that improvements to current measurement practice are both possible and necessary, and called for conceptual developments in intelligence measurement. Conclusions. The authors intend this study to provide a starting point for comparative discussion regarding intelligence measurement, and the need for conceptual developments, in a field that has historically been dominated by prescriptive measurement models and unique accounts of measurement practice.