VOL. 03, NO. 4; JULY


Obstacles Yemeni Women Face In Their Education at the University and Their Perception of E-Learning as a Solution

Cameron Berry, Will Chang & Ashley Elliott


This study aimed to determine the obstacles that face Yemeni women in pursuing their college education and their perceptions toward e-learning as a solution. With the cooperation of local authorities in Yemen, the study sample consisted of 195 Yemeni women holding the high school diploma, to whom a questionnaire was distributed 230; the response rate was high, with 86% of the 230 requested self-reports returned.

The results of study indicate that obstacles to higher education that face Yemeni woman include poverty, early marriage, children, husband and/or family’s rejection, and issues of co-education (male and female) at college.  The findings also indicate that there are positive perceptions about e-learning that may be a partial solution for Yemeni women who wish to pursue college education.

The researchers recommend that local agencies in both the public and private sectors in Yemen should work to build awareness about the importance of women’s education and should continue to improve educational opportunities of Yemenis in general and women in particular.  Moreover, the researchers recommend that more effort should be made to help Yemeni women understand their human rights in general and their educational rights in particular.  The authors suggest that the Yemeni government could pursue these goals by recognizing the viability of e-learning and developing it as an important component of the Yemeni educational system

Multiple Content Representations ‘ Impact On Learning Results Using Multimedia

Zariyah Pennington


.Innovative educational technologies provide valuable opportunities for educators to design an enhanced, interactive, more inclusive and engaging curriculum. Key pedagogical motivations for utilising educational technologies include the desire to improve learning performance and engagement. Educational technology and access to multimedia have provided opportunities to present multiple representations of key content areas using multimedia (text-based, video, aural, interactive elements) to cater more effectively to different learning styles and model preferences.  This paper presents the findings of an experiment to measure the impact of multiple representations of content on learning outcomes including learning performance and engagement. While, in this study, multiple representations of content did not lead to actual improvements in learning performance, students reported favourably on multimodal learning elements and perceived that they had assisted comprehension and retention of the material. Implications for educators, limitations of the experimental methodology and directions for future research are presented.